The Uruguay Round Agricultural Agreement remains the most important agreement in the history of trade negotiations for the liberalisation of agricultural trade. The aim of the agreement was to improve market access for agricultural products, reduce national aid to agriculture in the form of price-distorting subsidies and quotas, eliminate agricultural export subsidies over time and harmonize health and plant health measures among Member States as much as possible. The fourth round returned to Geneva in 1955 and lasted until May 1956. 26 countries participated in the cycle. $2.5 billion in tariffs have been eliminated or reduced. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a legal agreement between many countries whose overall objective was to promote international trade by removing or removing trade barriers, such as tariffs or quotas. According to its preamble, its objective was to “substantially reduce tariffs and other trade barriers and eliminate mutually beneficial and reciprocal preferences.” Agriculture has been essentially excluded from previous agreements, as it has been granted special status in the areas of import quotas and export subsidies, with slight reserves. However, at the time of the Uruguay Round, many countries considered the agricultural exception so egregious that they refused to sign a new no-move agreement for agricultural products. These fourteen countries were known as the “Cairns Group” and consisted mainly of small and medium-sized agricultural exporters such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia and New Zealand.
The Kennedy Round took place from 1962 to 1967. $40 billion in tariffs have been eliminated or reduced. In May 1963, ministers agreed on three negotiating objectives: the prosperity of the world economy over the past half century is largely due to the growth of world trade, partly due to far-sighted officials who created the GATT. They have defined a number of procedures aimed at providing stability to the trading environment and thus facilitating the rapid growth of world trade. In the long term, GATT conference countries have helped to put the global economy on a solid footing and thus improve the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people around the world. The Uruguay cycle began in 1986.