INDCs are recognized under the Agreement, but are not legally binding. The Paris Agreement was opened for signature on 22 April 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After several European Union states ratified the agreement in October 2016, enough countries that had ratified the agreement were producing enough greenhouse gases worldwide for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement entered into force on November 4, 2016.  The level of NDCs set by each country sets the objectives of that country. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law because they do not have the specificity, normative character or mandatory language necessary for the creation of binding norms.  In addition, there will be no mechanism  to force a country to set a target in its NDC by a certain date and no application if a target set in an NDC is not met.   There will only be a “Name and Shame” system or, as János Pásztor, UN Under-Secretary-General for Climate Change, told cbs News (USA), a “Name and Encourage” plan.  Given that the agreement has no consequences if countries do not comply with their obligations, such a consensus is fragile. A net of nations withdrawing from the deal could trigger the withdrawal of more governments and lead to a total collapse of the deal.
 The 1.5°C target is a big leap below the 2°C agreed in Copenhagen six years ago. This means the agreement for global emissions and the future of the planet In 1992, President George H.W. Bush, along with 107 other heads of state at the Earth Summit in Rio, Brazil, announced a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human interference in Earth`s climate systems in the long term. The Pact does not set greenhouse gas emission limits for each country and does not include enforcement mechanisms, but rather creates a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emission targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to tackle climate change. Although containment and adaptation require increased climate finance, adaptation has generally received less support and mobilized less private sector action.  A 2014 OECD report found that in 2014, only 16% of global financing was dedicated to climate change adaptation.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance and mitigation, and in particular highlighted the need to increase adaptation support for parties most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adaptation measures receive less investment from the public sector.  John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double its subsidy-based adjustment funding by 2020.  Here`s a look at what the Paris Agreement does, how it works, and why it`s so important to our future.