1.91 Ocean ecosystems and the environmental and human impact on fish stocks, however, are very complex and are only partially understood. As a result, fisheries science is a challenge and reflects significant uncertainties over most years, including the assessment of fish stocks and expected conservation outcomes. 1.102 Recommendation. Fisheries and Oceans Canada should clearly state its position on priorities, process and timetable for setting sustainable conservation targets for straddling and large migratory fish stocks. 1.122 This may be less of a concern if the objective of an agreement is clearly consistent with the department`s mandate and responsibilities, as there is less uncertainty about its role as a leading division. However, if the purpose and obligations of an agreement concern more than one federal department or federal authority or require coordination with other legal systems (. B, for example, provinces and territories), the potential consequences of ambiguous roles and responsibilities are much greater. In the past, pollution and environmental degradation have largely worked at the local level and their effects have therefore been isolated. However, given the increasing global scale of environmental degradation and the ever-increasing volume of pollutants entering the environment, their effects are now being felt regionally and globally. In addition, the magnitude and irreversibility of some global changes over time are sufficient to influence the well-being of future generations. 1.81 The agreement. The UN Convention on the Application of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 on the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and large migratory fish stocks, commonly known as UN fish stocks (UNFA), provides a framework for international cooperation in the conservation and management of these stocks. Development of international environmental law Since 1970, hundreds of international environmental instruments have been concluded.
If we include bilateral and multilateral instruments (binding and non-binding), there are more than 870 international legal instruments that have one or more provisions relating to environmental regulation. Today, the key players in international environmental law are not only states, but also businesses, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and individuals. Our audit work was conducted primarily from January to May 2004 and focused primarily on the three federal departments responsible for the five agreements: Environment Canada, Transport Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We reviewed information on the results and results of management services activities that have specific environmental objectives important to the selected agreements. We also asked departments to identify and describe how they applied elements of liability as part of their agreements and to provide supporting documents and documents. During our audit, we interviewed department officers and other selected stakeholders, as well as files, reports and other documents.